Food insecurity and symptoms of anxiety and depression disorder during the COVID- 19 pandemic : COVID-Inconfidentes, a population-based survey.

This study aimed to investigate the association between adult food insecurity (FI) and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in two Brazilian cities during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This study used data derived from a cross-sectional survey of 1693 adults. Interviews were conducted using an electronic questionnaire. The FI was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 was used to measure the symptoms of GAD. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used for MDD symptoms. The association between FI, GAD, and MDD symptoms was investigated using a Poisson regression model with robust variance to estimate the prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In regression models, a linear association between FI levels and outcomes was observed, with severe food insecurity having a 3.56 higher prevalence of GAD symptoms (95% CI: 2.23, 5.68) and a 3.03 higher prevalence of MDD (95% CI: 1.55, 5.90). In the stratified analyses, worse results were observed for females and males, individuals with non-white race/skin color, those without children, and those with lower monthly family income. In conclusion, the FI was associated with symptoms of GAD and MDD, and the sociodemographic characteristics interfered in this association. Therefore, we recommend the improvement of public health and social protection policies for food-insecure people.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Anxiety, Depression
SABIÃO, T. da S. et al. Food insecurity and symptoms of anxiety and depression disorder during the COVID- 19 pandemic: COVID-Inconfidentes, a population-based survey. SSM - Population Health, v. 19, artigo 101156, set. 2022. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 11 out. 2022.