Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://www.repositorio.ufop.br/jspui/handle/123456789/17673
Title: The action of phytochemicals present in cocoa in the prevention of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
Authors: Silva, Thayzis de Paula
Silva, Aline Andressa
Toffolo, Mayla Cardoso Fernandes
Aguiar, Aline Silva de
Keywords: Flavonoids
Cocoa
Atherosclerosis
Oxidative stress
Inflammation
Issue Date: 2022
Citation: SILVA, T. de P. et al. The action of phytochemicals present in cocoa in the prevention of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Journal of Clinical and Translational Research, v. 8, n. 6, p. 509-515, nov. 2022. Disponível em: <https://www.jctres.com/en/08.202206.011/>. Acesso em: 01 ago. 2023.
Abstract: Background: Chronic non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), have caused many deaths worldwide. Atherosclerotic plaque formation is common in individuals with CVDs. Thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutritional strategies can be used to prevent or inhibit this process. Due to its higher concentrations of cocoa, dark chocolate is considered a functional food due to the presence and action of phytochemical compounds, with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. However, the recommended amounts of these compounds to prevent atherosclerosis have not yet been fully elucidated. Aim: The aim of the studywas to review the effects of cocoa and dark chocolate intake on the prevention of cardiovascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Methods: This narrative review was based on a search of PubMed and Lilacs. The search was conducted from September 2021 to February 2022 using the following keywords: flavonoids, cocoa, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The inclusion criteria were original articles, meta- analyses, and experimental and clinical studies published between 2002 and 2022 in English, focusing on the subject addressed. The exclusion criteria were the title and abstract reading and duplication of articles in the databases. Results: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions of phytochemicals in cocoa and dark chocolate are related to the modulation of nitric oxide through activation/phosphorylation and acting as a vasodilator. Furthermore, these phytochemicals reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species and activate antioxidant enzymes. The anti-inflammatory activities are related to the modulation of nuclear factor kappa B in the reduction of inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as in the reduction of adhesion molecules in the wall of the vases. Conclusion: The main phytochemicals present in cocoa and dark chocolates are catechins and their epicatechin isomers, which are responsible for improving inflammatory, metabolic, and antioxidant profiles. Its consumption can be encouraged, but with caution, owing to the caloric supply and forms of chocolate production, as these factors can reduce the presence of flavonoids in its composition. Relevance for Patients: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions of the phytochemicals in cocoa and dark chocolate are responsible for modulating nitric oxide via activation/phosphorylation and acting as a vasodilator. Reducing the formation of reactive oxygen species, as well as activating antioxidant enzymes. As for the anti-inflammatory activities, they modulate the nuclear factor kappa B, reducing inflammatory markers, thus improving the antioxidant and inflammatory profile of these patients.
URI: http://www.repositorio.ufop.br/jspui/handle/123456789/17673
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18053/jctres.08.202206.011
ISSN: 2424-810X
metadata.dc.rights.license: This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Fonte: PDF do artigo.
Appears in Collections:DENCS - Artigos publicados em periódicos

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